For what concerns methodology, the analysis of identity variation and of the re-definition of linguistic, sociolinguistic and cultural habits in case studies 1-6 and 10, referring to modern contexts, will be based on a strictly qualitative approach. Even though usually the study of ethnolinguistic identity and of linguistic habits in general is based on a quantitative analysis of given questionnaires or on inductive methods (Matched Guide Technique), these research tools have the disadvantage to lead the speaker towards a limited set of often stereotyped evaluations. During our fieldwork we will thus analyze the different ethnolinguistic and cultural identities starting from a non-planned observation of the habits of native speakers through the audio / video recording of interviews in a (semi)spontaneous setting. In collaboration with anthropologists, who will mainly focus on material culture, following the guidelines of the French Techno-Cultural anthropology school, linguists will concentrate on the specialized lexicon of determined semantic fields and cycles of activity, using the classical method of the German tradition of Wörter und Sachen, already successfully applied for the ATMCS of the Saho of Eritrea by Giorgio Banti (ATrA UNO), Moreno Vergari and Giovanni Dore (Ethnorêma, ATrA Units). The archaeological fieldwork will consist in the excavations and surface collections conducted at selected site. In both these phases the facilities (hardware e software) offered by the Laboratory of African Archaeology of the Department of Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean and of the Center for Archaeology of the University "L'Orientale" will be used. For what concerns philology, the traditional methodology of historic-comparative linguistics will be used in order to reconstruct the most ancient forms of words and roots and analyze loanwords and lexical exchanges, while for the factual and cultural history of the regions studied, the methods of philology and text critics will be used. For the history of literature the indexation of texts will be prior, in order to realize lexical repertoires and conceptual indexes. In case 9 the investigation will be conducted above all analyzing contemporary literary sources (dated at the 5th -8th centuries AD) and the always growing archaeological evidence coming from the sites object of our study.